Read the passage and select the most appropriate options to answer the questions that follow.
The ground beneath our feet seems rock solid, but our planet’s surface is in fact a dynamic grid of slowly moving sections known as tectonic plates. Normally this motion is incredibly slow, showing itself only on geological timescales. This motion builds up stress in the crust. If the stress rises beyond a critical threshold, a portion of the crust will give way, shifting suddenly and violently. This sudden motion occurs along a fault- a weak zone in the earth’s crust; the result is felt as an earthquake. The destructive power of an earthquake depends on the depth of its focus. In the most common earthquakes known as shallow focus events, the focus is just a few dozen kilometers below the surface. Because the crust is in motion so close to the surface, these quakes are most powerful and deadly. In contrast, deep focus quakes originate hundreds of kilometers below the surface and cause less damage. Earthquakes can also occur beneath the ocean; such oceanic quakes can trigger enormous tidal waves or tsunamis. The first practical scale for measuring earthquakes was developed by geologist Charles Richter and the scale scientists use today still bears his name. A quake with magnitude between 2 and 3 is the lowest normally felt by the people. A magnitude 5 is considered moderate and a magnitude 6 or higher is considered major. Major earthquakes release far more energy than any man-made explosion. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake with a magnitude of 8.3 was approximately one million times as powerful as the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The earthquake in Bhuj, measured 8.1 on the Richter scale. No one can predict exactly where or when the next major earthquake will occur. However, seismologists have several methods at their disposal that allow them to make educated guesses. A statistical study of historical earthquakes in a given region shows how frequent earthquakes of different magnitudes have been in the past. From these figures they can guess how likely future earthquakes will be. Seismologists can also measure how much stress a region is under and how quickly that stress is increasing. That knowledge along with the elapsed time since the last quake helps scientists determine if another earthquake is likely in the region. This method is far from perfect, though, and requires extremely detailed seismological data which simply isn’t available for most regions.
SubQuestion No : 86
Q.86 What does the phrase ‘educated guess’ mean in the passage?
1. a gut feeling guess made by scientists based on intuition and foreboding.
2. a guess based on knowledge and experience which is likely to be correct.
3. a wild guess which is not based on any statistical data.
4. a guess made by educated people like seismologists which is always correct.
Q.87 The passage mainly deals with
1. how the seismologists can accurately predict earthquakes based on precise data.
2. the contribution of Charles Richter in developing a scale for measuring earthquakes.
3. the history of earthquakes and the devastation caused by them.
4. the phenomenon behind the occurrence of earthquakes and their measurement.
Q.88 An earthquake is caused due to the
1. sudden violent shifting of the crust along a weak zone when excessive stress builds up.
2. deep focus that originates hundreds of kilometers below the surface of the earth.
3. shallow focus just a few dozen kilometers below the earth’s surface.
4. incredibly slow motion of the tectonic plates on the earth’s crust
Q.89 The deep focus earthquakes are less damaging because
1. the crust in motion is very close to the surface and its effect passes away quickly.
2. they are very rare and their intensity is usually low to moderate.
3. the motion of the crust is thousands of kilometers deep under the surface.
4. they can be predicted well in advance and precautions can be taken.
Q.90 Which of these statements is NOT correct?
1. Oceanic quakes can trigger devastating tsunamis.
2. The tectonic plates are rapidly moving sections which build stress in the earth’s crust.
3. The destructive power of an earthquake depends on the depth of its focus.
4. Major earthquakes release more energy than man-made explosives and bombs.
Q.91 Select the most appropriate synonym of the given word.
Q.92 Select the option which correctly converts the given sentence into indirect speech.
She said to me, “Shall I post these invitations for you today?”
1. I asked her if I shall post these invitations for her that day.
2. She asked me if she could post these invitations for me that day.
3. She asked me that if she should post those invitations for me today.
4. She asked me if she should post those invitations for me that day.
Q.93 Select the option that arranges sentences B, C, D and E in a logical sequence. Sentences A and F are static.
A. You would have noticed maps in shopping malls that say, “You are here.”
B. They also guide you about the location of various stores and eating joints and how to get there.
C. They seem to be blessed with an internal compass that orients them automatically.
D. They are put up to orient you in unfamiliar territory, to tell you where you are.
E. But, there are some people who never need these maps.
F. They always make the correct turn and end up exactly where they intended via the shortest route.