Figures of Speech को हिंदी में अलंकार कहते है. इसका प्रयोग भाषा की शोभा बढाने के लिए किया जाता है. अंग्रेजी में हम इसे निम्न तरीके से कह सकते है:
A Figure of Speech is a Word or Phrase which is used in a non-literal sense for rhetoric effect. Rhetoric is the art of using words or phrases in a persuasive manner.
हम कोई भी भाव को दो तरीके से अभिव्यक्त कर सकते है – शाब्दिक (Literal) और अलंकारिक (Figurative). नीचे के उदहारण देखे:-
|LITERAL EXPRESSIONS||FIGURATIVE EXPRESSIONS|
|My beloved is beautiful.|
The camel runs smooth in the desert.
He has died.
He drank the poison.
He was the king of Mysore.
|My beloved is like a rose.|
The camel is the ship of the desert.
He has given up the ghost.
He drank the fatal cup.
He was the crown of Mysore.
Figures of Speech निम्न हो सकते है:-
- Figures based on Similarity such as Simile, Metaphor, Fable, Parable, Allegory
- Figures based on Difference such as Oxymoron, Antithesis, Epigram, Paradox, Climax, Anti-climax or Bathos
- Figures based on Association such as Transferred Epithet, Allusion, Metonymy, Synecdoche
- Figures based on Imagination such as Pathetic Fallacy, Hyperbole, Apostrophe, Vision
- Figures based on Indirectness such as Irony, Sarcasm, Inneuendo, Euphamism
- Figures based on Construction such as Interrogation, Exclamation, Chiasmus, Zeugma
- Figures based on Sound such as Pun, Onomatopoeia, Alliteration